The opposition to the Chinese invasion and the pro-Hindi movement created closeness between the Jana Sangh and Lohia. The by-elections of 1963 became more helpful in this direction.
Ideological opponents of Jan Sangh (now BJP) have been complaining to Jayaprakash Narayan that by giving preference to Jan Sangh first in Bihar movement and then in Janata Party, he gave a big opportunity to this party and its ideology to expand. But the facts show that the task of breaking the ‘untouchability of Jana Sangh’ for other parties had been started years before him through Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia, the biggest face of socialist movement.
In the non-Congress contract governments of 1967, there is talk of sharing the power of socialists, communists and other parties including Jansangh. But his steps in this direction had already increased in 1963. Then in the Lok Sabha by-election of Jaunpur, he did not field any Samajwadi candidate. He supported Jansangh’s candidate Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay and held meetings in his favor in Jaunpur.
The by-election of Jaunpur in which Lohia campaigned for Deendayal
This by-election is also remembered for different reasons. Bypolls were also held simultaneously for two other seats in Uttar Pradesh, Farrukhabad and Amroha Lok Sabha seats. Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia was elected from Farrukhabad, Acharya Kripalani was elected from Amroha. This was the first experiment of non-Congress electoral alliance against Congress. Lohia had held four meetings in Jaunpur in this election. Jansangh openly supported Lohia-Kriplani in Farrukhabad, Amroha. Deendayal Upadhyay was against opportunistic alliances to win elections through short cuts but considered political untouchability undesirable.
In his annual report as General Secretary at the Bhopal session of the party (29-31 December 1962), he said, “The political situation in the country is not normal due to the heavy aggression of Communist China and the announcement of emergency by the President. The dormant national consciousness of the people has awakened. An atmosphere of unity has been created. Due to the coming of different parties on one platform, there has been an opportunity to understand each other and to be free from prejudices. If this atmosphere of co-operation and goodwill remains, it will definitely be healthy for political development.
Chinese invasion and Hindi movement brought Jansangh closer to Lohia
The opposition to the Chinese invasion and the pro-Hindi movement created closeness between the Jana Sangh and Lohia. The by-elections of 1963 became more helpful in this direction. There was a demand from some quarters that a permanent alliance should be formed between the Socialists and the Jana Sangh. But Deendayal ji did not expect the success of any such effort. In the Ahmedabad session on 28 December 1963, he said,
“Different parties have their own different viewpoints. People do not think about those ideals. They sometimes think on the basis of goodwill that it would be great if all the parties come together. This would be a very good thought, but they forget that the different parties that have been formed have some basic things on the basis of which they exist. For this mere goodwill is not enough. That’s why we have decided that we will not be limited to mere imagination and will not do such work, in which there is no possibility of success. It would be better if we work together where we are unanimous, where not, we walk on our own platform.
Deendayal went to congratulate the winning candidate as soon as he lost the by-election
Deendayal had lost this by-election of Jaunpur. But even after losing, his stature had grown bigger. Alerting the supporters, he had said, “If you do this, I will withdraw from the election field.” This was the only election in his political life. In reality, Deendayal was not interested in contesting the elections. Was forced to contest elections on the orders of the organization.
In 1962, Brahmjit Singh of Jansangh won this seat. Unfortunately, he passed away soon. Congress had nominated Rajdev Singh as its candidate. The well-known casteist election gimmick of Purvanchal was showing effect in the campaign. In order to brighten the possibilities, there was a need to provoke Brahmins in response to Thakurism. As soon as Deendayal came to know about such attempts, he protested sharply.
He kept on raising national issues in the campaign. Lost the election. As soon as the news of defeat was received, the first person congratulated the victorious Rajdev Singh. The same evening held a meeting to show gratitude to the voters. Keeping aside the electoral realities, Deendayal’s campaign was based on policies and ethics. The result was against him. But that election is still remembered as an example.
Father of the concept of Integral Humanism
In the 1964 Gwalior Chintan Shivir, he presented his famous concept of “Integral-Humanism”. He emphasized on creating peace-harmony within the individual-society. That’s why he rejected communism which inspires class struggle. He emphasized the interdependence of classes. Similarly, he rejected the concept of contradiction between individual and society in capitalism. He kept stressing on the smooth harmony of these two.
He used to say that a flower is called a flower only because of its petals and the importance of these petals is also in living with the flower and enhancing its beauty. Integral humanism compares Virat in the life of a nation with the soul within the human body. Just as Prana gives strength to different parts of the body, sharpens the intellect and keeps the body-soul united, the same ‘Viraat’ does with the nation. Due to Virat being powerful, democracy can be successful and the government can be effective. He had imagined such an India, which would be more glorious than the success stories of its past.
Sangh Pracharak became just at the age of 21
… And for this glorious nation building, at the age of just 21, he became the pracharak of the Sangh. In 1942, he wrote a letter to his uncle, “God gave everything to our family. Can’t we dedicate even one member of our family for the service of the nation? Can we not give up some of our petty ambitions for the safety of our society, for which Ram went to the forest, Krishna endured countless hardships, Rana Pratap wandered in the jungles, Shivaji risked everything and Guru Govind Singh allowed his young sons to be buried alive.
Deendayalji did not just write all this in the letter. He was brought up in life with all humility but firmness. Leaving aside all personal ambitions, he participated in the national sacrifice. He lived what he said and said. The train journey of Lucknow-Patna on February 11, 1968 put a complete stop on his life journey. His dead body was found on the railway line of Mughalsarai. Could a saint like him have any enemy? The mystery of his death was never solved.
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