The stigma of Sita’s exile is one story, many stories! (signal picture)
Ram is choiceless in the country and Ram Kathas are many. That is, Rama is present everywhere, but the ways of describing him are different. Yet there is no doubt that the original story is the Ramayana narrated by sage Valmiki. All metaphors are taken from there. Ram’s style is different, but neither Ram nor his country nor his purpose has changed. That is why in this country only Ram is included in everyone.
East or west or north or south, Rama is everywhere and Ravana is everywhere. Ram takes birth only to kill Ravana. All the Ram stories are inspired by Valmiki Ramayana. After the Ramayana, in the tenth century, Kamban wrote the epic Ramayana, which became very popular in the South.
Ramayana written 600 years before Christ?
It is believed that Rama was born in the house of Kosala King Dasharatha in Treta Yuga. Some people say that sage Valmiki wrote the Ramayana 600 years before Christ. The Mahabharata which came after it is silent about Buddhism. Although there are descriptions of other traditions like Jain, Shaiva, Pashupat etc. Therefore, Ramayana should be before the time of Gautam Buddha. From the language-style also this book should be before the time of Panini. The first and last episode of Ramayana was probably added later. From chapters two to seven it is mostly emphasized that Rama was an incarnation of Vishnu. According to some, the Greek and many other references in this epic suggest that this book may not be before the second century BCE, but this notion is controversial. The time before six hundred years BC is also correct because the Buddhist Jatakas describe the characters of Ramayana, while the characters of the Jatakas are not described in the Ramayana.
Everyone sang Ram Charit according to their time
Many things are different in every Ramayana. For example, at present, there is no Agni Pariksha and Sita’s exile in the Ramayana-Ram Charit Manas of the most popular Tulsi. Tulsi seems to have escaped from him. Whereas Kamban has criticized Rama for both these episodes in his Tamil Ramayana. It is known from both these episodes that Maharishi Valmiki wrote the story of Rama according to the conditions of the country and time, then the later writers took the ideals of their time. Now it is certain that by the time of Tulsi’s time, these incidents had become invalid in the society, that is why Tulsi avoided them.
stigma of sita exile
In the fourteenth century in eastern India, Sankardeva wrote the Ramayana in Assamese language. He also has a different story. In no part of India, the public mind did not forgive Rama for Sita’s exile. There is a critique of Rama in the Buddhist Jatakas and Jain tradition’s Ramayana by Vimal Suri’s Paum Chariu (300-400 AD). Dr. Ramanath Trivedi has written that Rama did not doubt the character of Sita in Valmiki-Ramayana. Doubt begins with Jain Rama-Kathas. It is described in “Paum Chariu” that the citizens met Rama and talked about the stigma of Sita. Rama asked Lakshmana to leave Sita in the forest. When Lakshman was not ready, Ram got this work done by his commander. Rama doubted the character of Sita, to make it with a tact, a picture of Ravana was conceived. The earliest mention of this is in the Upadesha-pada of Haribhadra (8th century). Sita’s jealous sisters got Sita painted the feet of Ravana, then showed it to Rama. When Ram neglected, the sons got publicity through the slaves. Ram came out wearing a secret disguise, when he came to know about Sita’s stigma, then he got Sita abandoned by the commander. This incident is also followed in Hemchandra’s Jain Ramayana. In this the number of steps is given as three.
The miraculous incident of making a picture of Ravana became easily acceptable to the public. But, the public did not accept that many wives of Rama, a fasting wife, would be shown. Later on, the women who requested to make the picture were shown nothing but saut. Now we have to study from two points of view –
1. who is asking for the drawing, and
2. What is the basis of drawing?
In Anand-Ramayana, Kaikeyi urged to make a picture of Ravana. Sita had seen the toe of Ravana’s toe, she made it on the wall. At the behest of friends in Kritivasi Bangla-Ramayana, Sita made a picture of Ravana on the floor. In the Chandravati-Ramayana of Bengali language, Kaikeyi’s daughter, Kukua, gets Sita made a picture of Ravana on the talon-feathers. Thus, in the Bengali Ramayana, there was a dispute between step-mother-in-law-daughter-in-law or sister-in-law. In the story of Madiya Gaur tribals, Sita makes a picture with cow dung at the behest of her sister-in-law.
In the Ramayana of Guru Gobind Singh, the friends get the paintings made on the wall. Ram has doubts and Sita solemnly enters the earth. Kashmiri is a younger sister-in-law who painted in Ramayana. Lakshmana takes Sita to the forest region. When Sita falls asleep, Lakshmana returns by hanging a pot full of water. This is also the case in a Bundelkhandi folk song. There is also a picture story in many folk talks. This episode was publicized throughout the country and in South-East Asia. It can be analyzed as follows-
1. A sister-in-law, a sister-in-law, a daughter of Ravana or a demonic person were said to have made the picture.
2. The basis of the picture was the floor, the fan, the wall, the banana leaf, the plate etc.
3. The picture was made of the whole body, step or thumb.
4. It is also shown in foreign Rama tales that on the orders of Rama, Lakshmana took Sita to the forest to kill, but he killed any animal (dog, goat or deer) and brought its blood or any part to show Rama. Wonder why such bloodshed is shown in Buddhist-influenced foreign Ramayana stories? By the way, in the Ananda-Ramayana, Rama asks Lakshmana to cut off Sita’s right arm, because with this he made the picture of Ravana.
A unique reason for Sita-exile was discovered in Anand-Ramayana. Ram is passionate about pregnant Sita, so he was sent to the ashram. Sita remained absorbed in her sattva form, in Rama, only her Raja-Tama form undergoes exile. It can be considered as the shadow-Sita of spirituality-Ramayana.
The reasons for the exile of Sita, which have been discussed so far, were the following:
1. The psychological basis of Sita’s exile was discovered that he made a picture of the kidnapper Ravana, this made Rama doubt his character.
2. Rama was a popular ruler. He had to show that he respected the sentiments of an ordinary citizen like a washerman.
3. In order that the character of Rama should not be tarnished, reasons were coined that Tara-Mandodari had cursed, the gods wanted Rama to return to heaven, or Rama did not want to live with Sita after suffering the age of his father, or Rama was pregnant. They have affection towards Sita, so they do not want to keep them together.
story of ram’s sister
According to the Ramayana story prevalent in South India, Lord Shri Ram also had an elder sister, whose name was Shanta. Many stories are also found about Shanta, some of which are as follows. According to a legend, Ravana came to know from his grandfather Brahma that he would die at the hands of a divine child born to Kaushalya and Dasharatha, so Ravana planned to kill Kaushalya before marriage. He kidnapped Kaushalya, locked him in a box and threw her into the Saryu river, while the creator was also playing his game, Dasharatha was returning after hunting. His eyes fell on this act of demons sent by Ravana, but by the time Dasharatha reached there, the elusive demons had left after doing their work. King Dasharatha still did not know that Kaushalya, the daughter of King Kaushal, was in the box. He had the same feeling that no one’s life is in danger. King Dasharatha jumped into the river without hesitation and started looking for the box. He was very tired due to some hunting and some due to swimming in the river, even his own life was in danger, it was good that Jatayu saved him from drowning and helped him to find the box. Then seeing the unconscious Kaushalya locked in the box, his joy knew no bounds. Devarshi Narada performed the Gandharva marriage of Kaushalya and Dasharatha. Now the marriage took place, after some time a girl was born to him, but this girl was handicapped. After lakhs of attempts of treatment, the solution was not found, then it came to know that the reason for this was the same gotra of King Dasharatha and Kaushalya, that is why it happened. The solution was found that the parents of the girl should be changed i.e. if someone makes her adopted daughter, then there is a possibility of her being healthy. In such a situation, King Rompad and Varshini of Angadesh accepted Shanta as their daughter and she became healthy. After being young, Shanta was married to Ring Rishi.
According to another legend, King Kaushalya had a sister, Varshini, who was married to King Rompad, but had no children. At the same time, King Dasharatha and Kaushalya had a daughter named Shanta, she was very virtuous and skilled in every art. Once King Rompad and Varshini had come to the place of King Dasharatha. Varshini laughed and said that I wish I had a child like Shanta too, just after hearing this, King Dasharatha gave her a promise to adopt Shanta. Thus Shanta became the princess of Angadesh. King Rompad had a special attachment to Shanta, he loved his daughter very much. Once a Brahmin came to the door, but he kept on talking with his daughter and the Brahmin returned empty handed. The Brahmin was a devotee of Indra Dev. Indra Dev became enraged by the disrespect of his devotee and a famine situation arose in Angadesh. Then the king called Rig Rishi, the son of Vibhandak Rishi, to perform the Yagya. As a result of the yajna, there was heavy rain and the state started flourishing with money and food. In such a situation, King Rompad and Varshini married their daughter to the sage Ringa.
According to another folklore, it is also believed that when Shanta was born, there was a severe famine in Ayodhya for 12 years. The king was advised that this famine was due to his daughter Shanta. In such a situation, King Dasharatha donated his daughter Shanta to the childless Varshini. Shanta was never even called back to Ayodhya for fear that Ayodhya might become famine-prone. At the same time, another folktale is found in which it is told that King Dasharatha had adopted Shanta only because she was a girl and could not become the heir of the kingdom.
In some stories, there is also a mention of two sisters of Lord Rama, one of which has been named as Shanta and one as Kutbi. But in every Ram story, the hero is Rama and the villain is Ravana. For the benefit of the people, Rama kills Ravana and hands over the kingdom of Lanka to his younger brother Praja Vatsal Vibhishana. This form of Rama is worshipable. There is praise in the people.
Also read- Pitru Paksha: Glorification and denial of the fathers of the nation on the basis of political interests