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New education policy and Hindi: The prosperity of the language will come from reducing the dependence on English and elementary education in the mother tongue

नई शिक्षा नीति और हिंदी: अंग्रेजी पर निर्भरता कम होने और मातृभाषा में प्रारंभिक शिक्षा से आएगी भाषा की समृद्धि

Hindi Diwas 2021: The Government of India has implemented the New Education Policy 2020. Under this policy also one of the recommendations of the Official Language Commission 1955 has been included in the recommendation for knowledge and learning of Indian languages.

On 14 September 1949, at the constitutional level, Hindi and the script Devanagari were recognized as the official language of the Union of India.

(Bhavna Masiwal)

Today 14th September is celebrated as Hindi Diwas all over the country. It has a history of its own. On this day on 14 September 1949, at the constitutional level, Hindi and the script Devanagari, the official language of the Union of India, were recognized. Section 343 stated that “the official language of the Union shall be Hindi and the script Devanagari and the form of numerals shall be the international form of Indian numerals. The English language will continue to be used for official purposes for a period of 15 years. In this regard, the Official Language Commission was formed in 1955. Thirteen suggestions were made by the commission in the process of fully establishing Hindi as the official language. On which no concrete steps were taken by the government. Before 1965, the Official Language Act came in 1963. Which is again amended in 1967.

Under this act, the assurance of fully establishing Hindi as the official language by 1965 is again extended indefinitely. The biggest reason for which was the fierce opposition to Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas. For this reason it was said that “Even after 26 January 1965, the English language, other than Hindi, will continue to be used for all the official purposes of the Union for which it has been used before.” This system has been going on since the constitution came into force till date. It is our misfortune that due to government policies, Hindi is still working as an assistant in the official language and a foreign language remains the base language for official purposes, talks, letters, records as our main official language.

language is the way of knowledge

Language opens the paths of knowledge, but in our own country, the over-dependence of all of us on English has deprived the students of even villages, towns and cities of science and technical knowledge due to lack of English language knowledge. If we look around us, then a student taking science education in Hindi till school, at the time of admission to higher education, keeps distance from science and technical courses due to the compulsion of English language and English language and lack of textbooks in Hindi language. It is the failure of our education and language policy that it is celebrating another nectar festival of independence, on the other hand, even after so many years of independence, we are unable to provide knowledge-science courses in Hindi, mother tongue and regional languages. Whatever little is available, it is only a translation and not a standard one. Due to this difficulty of language, many of our talents are not getting a chance to come to the fore. Rabindranath Tagore has also said that “We have lost our eyes and put on glasses”. These glasses are of foreign languages, which after getting independence started wearing more and more. Today these glasses can be seen the most in the center of intellectual discussions and debates.

Importance of Hindi in education policy

Keeping in mind the need of today to advance the Indian education system systematically and systematically, the Government of India has implemented the New Education Policy 2020. Which remains a topic of discussion at the national and international level. In the New Education Policy 2020, all those questions arising in relation to the language have been understood and made a part of the new education policy, which is being discussed on every Hindi day in the whole country. Under this policy also one of the recommendations of the Official Language Commission 1955 has been included in the recommendation for knowledge and learning of Indian languages. Whereas earlier in 1968 the Kothari Commission (1964-66), which is called the first step in the history of Indian education, declared education as a matter of national importance. Aiming at compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14 years. Is. Recommends to encourage the teaching of Sanskrit language and implement the three-language formula. The biggest availability of the Kothari Commission was the introduction of the three-language formula. Because this was the time of the linguistic movement where the states were being separated on the one hand on linguistic basis and on the other hand the time of 15 years was being completed to make Hindi completely the official language. At the same time, there was fierce opposition to Hindi in South India. In the midst of these adversity and linguistic disagreements, the Kothari Commission brings the three-language formula, which was an important step in the development of Hindi language.

What is education policy?

After the recommendations of the Kothari Commission, the National Education Policy comes in 1986. This policy is amended in 1992 and it is said that most of the suggestions of the 1968 education policy could not be translated into the program, because there was no concrete plan for implementation, nor were clear responsibilities fixed. For this reason, keeping in mind the new challenges and social needs, a new education policy has been prepared. In the education policy of 1986, there are no specific instructions regarding language. The main objective of this policy was to connect education with innovation, technology, technology, science and values. With regard to languages, it was said that “The question of development of languages ​​was considered in detail in the education policy of 1968. There is hardly any room for improvement in the original recommendations of that policy and they are as relevant today as they were before. But the policy of 1968 was not followed uniformly across the country. Now this policy will be implemented more actively and purposefully”. Be it the recommendations of the Kothari Commission of 1968 or the National Education Policy of 1986, both are not very vocal in terms of language. As much as the new education policy 2020.

The question of language as a medium of instruction has been clearly raised in the New Education Policy-2020. For which a sub-chapter titled ‘Multilingualism and the Power of Language’ has been kept. Recognizing the power of language as a medium of instruction by the Government of India, various provisions and suggestions have been made in this education policy. It stated that “young children learn and grasp meaningful concepts more quickly in their home language/mother tongue. The home language is usually the mother tongue or the language spoken by the local communities. ….So, as far as possible, at least up to grade 5 but preferably up to grade 8 and beyond, the medium of instruction will be the home language/ mother tongue/ local language/ regional language. Thereafter the home/local language will continue to be taught as a language wherever possible. This will be followed by both public and private schools.

• Highest quality text books in all subjects including science will be made available in mother tongue.
• A gap, if any, exists between the language spoken by the child and the medium of instruction, will be closed.
• Three language formula was reintroduced in the development of the language and it was said that it would have at least two Indian languages.
• Sanskrit, Pali, Persian, Prakrit as well as Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam and Odia languages ​​will also be included as an option and will be part of the curriculum.

Gandhi’s thoughts also became part of the debate

Our mother tongues are the language of communication and communication of our people and wider people. This is the heritage of our nation, if we cannot create a sense of self-respect towards them, then we cannot have a sense of self-respect towards our nation as well. Mahatma Gandhi has also said that “Why should there not be so many flaws in my mother tongue? I will cling to it the way a child clings to its mother’s chest. This can give me life-giving milk. If the English wants to grab the space it doesn’t deserve, I will hate it hard, it may be a learning object for some people, not millions, not millions.” In the Wardha Education Scheme 1937, Mahatma Gandhi had spoken on the compulsion of mother tongue in education. But over time his ideas also became a part of intellectual debate.

In the New Education Policy-2020, an attempt has been made to revive the mother tongues. It is true that no nation becomes strong until its land, that is, its people, is not strong. Our mother tongues represent this large and wide population. When this mass group is strong, then our Hindi language representing it will automatically be strong. Because the vocabulary of Hindi is made up of words from its mother tongue, regional dialects and Indian languages. In such a situation multilingualism is not our weakness but our specialty. In the words of Dr. Zakir Hussain, “Hindi is the thread that will weave the flowers of different mother tongues to create a beautiful necklace for Mother India”. The biggest feature of our Constitution is unity in diversity. Five fingers together make a fist. The identity of Hindi as a language in our multilingualism is like a fist that gives a feeling of power in the form of Hindi despite having different fingers i.e. languages.

Education policy is necessary in the nation

It is necessary to have an education policy for the development of the nation. Just as the medium of education of China’s knowledge and science is their own language. Their market is also operated in their own language. Similarly, it should be done within our country also. But here the situation is quite opposite. The medium of knowledge and science in our country is a foreign language. It is the irony of our country that even after being a multilingual nation, even today, from the courts to the administrative system, foreign language is used. We have become free but are still living in linguistic slavery and the youth of our country is suffering from inferiority complex towards their own language.

The New Education Policy-2020, after 34 years, raises the questions of language development on a large scale, which were not explicitly raised before that in the Kothari Commission of 1968 and the National Education Policy of 1986. This education policy issued by the Government of India is a policy to pave the way for the future education system of India and the progress of the nation. If this policy is not implemented sincerely, then it will become a mere document like its earlier policies. As happened with the Wardha education scheme in the mirror of history, in which many such points were raised, including the use of mother tongues, which due to not being implemented properly, remained only suggestions and documents. In such a situation, it is necessary that the new education policy should be implemented effectively. This will not only enrich our languages, but our young generation will also be able to find new avenues of knowledge through their mother tongue, regional language and Hindi and contribute to the development of the nation.

(The writer is Assistant Professor of Hindi at Government PG College, Manila, Uttarakhand.)

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